A FAQ on the subject of quality labelling can be foundhere.
1. general information about slinging ropes
What are slinging ropes?
Definition: Slinging ropes are steel wire ropes which, equipped with the appropriate hook, are used for lifting and transporting loads and are part of the basic equipment of every company.
The manufacture of ropes is regulated by DIN EN 13414 (formerly DIN 3088). The familiar distinction between the sling types N = normal rope, F = Flemish eye, K = cable sling and G = Grummet no longer exists. Rather, the European regulations distinguish between slinging ropes according to the type of core and the end connection. A distinction is made between 8 slinging rope variants with different load capacities:
Slinging ropes in pressed design with aluminium or steel crimping with:
Fibre core FC (1) or with steel core IWRC (2). The tables for spliced end connections for slinging ropes with fibre core (3) or steel core (4) take into account the reduction in breaking load due to the end connection.
For cable lay ropes in pressed (5) and spliced (6) versions, ropes with steel cores are used which are stranded around a central fibre core.
In the case of endless laid grummets , a distinction is made between ropes with fiber core (7) or steel core (8).
Various rope end connections:
Detachable rope end connections:
Wire rope clamp
Asymmetrical wedge end clamp
Symmetrical wedge terminal
Non-detachable rope end connections:
Bolt grouting (steel)
With an assumed load of e.g. 4.5 t, this results in the following options for you:
Rope type 1 with fibre core, pressed 22 mm Ø, WLL 5000 kg
Rope type 2 with steel core, pressed 20 mm Ø, WLL 4600 kg
Rope type 3 with fibre core, spliced, 24 mm Ø, WLL 5600 kg
Rope type 4 with steel core, spliced, 22 mm Ø, WLL 5000 kg
Rope type 5 Cable lay, pressed, 27 mm Ø, WLL 4800 kg
Rope type 6 Cable lay, spliced, 30 mm Ø, WLL 5600 kg
Rope type 7 Grummet, fibre core, 18 mm Ø, WLL 4650 kg
Rope type 8 Grummet, steel core, 18 mm Ø, WLL 4900 kg
In summary, the result is as follows: If the steel core is used, the diameter of the slinging rope can be reduced by one nominal size; if cable slinging ropes are used, the rope must be 1 to 2 nominal sizes thicker in order to achieve the same load capacity of the standard rope with fibre core / pressed. With the Grummet, the load is distributed over 2 load-bearing strands, which means that the diameter of the single rope can be significantly reduced once again.
Both cable slinging ropes and grummets should be chosen when the flexibility of the sling is important, as when slinging the load. These types of ropes can cope better with bends around smaller radii than round strand ropes.
What you should pay special attention to when shopping for quality:
Marking of the crimping clamp with manufacturer’s mark and CE mark
Is the grouting correct?
Does the dead rope end close with the crimping clamp or does it protrude a maximum of 0.5 x d (rope diameter)?
Is the rope straight?
Is the rope diameter correct?
Is the clamp length approx. 4.5 x d?
DIN EN 13414 regulates the requirements for the processed raw material and specifies processing guidelines that a quality-conscious manufacturer like Dolezych adheres to exactly.
The standard basis for pressed end connections is DIN EN 13411-3, which regulates the material requirements for the press clamps, describes the pressing process and the quality controls.
Press connections differ in the material:
In the standard version, slinging ropes are made of wrought aluminium alloys. For hot use or where there is a risk of wear, the use of steel press clamps is recommended. The standard compression is cylindrical. On request, the ferrule can be rounded off towards the middle of the rope (old DIN 3093, type B). Even better is the cylindrical-tapered ferrule (old form C), which is tapered towards the middle of the rope. This prevents snagging as far as possible when pulling through under the load. Ropes made of stainless steels are preferably crimped with copper clamps or stainless steel clamps.
The inspection of slinging ropes requires special care and is to be carried out exclusively by competent and trained personnel in accordance with the inspection instructions. Please ask us about it!
In addition to slinging ropes, Dolezych also manufactures precision-fit ropes as machine elements with pressed end connections such as shaped steel or solid thimbles, tensioning ropes and strands with pressed-on or rolled-on threaded, eye and fork terminals, as used, for example, in rope supporting structures, lightweight halls or bridge bracing.
In thinner dimensions, terminals are standard in many actuating trains, for example. On many crane and retaining ropes, there are further end fittings in the form of grouting heads, which are cast using the hot or cold process.
These products are not slinging ropes in the sense of the standards. But here, too, the quality of workmanship is the decisive feature.
DoAS slinging ropes may only be used for lifting and transporting loads.
According to BGR 500, the use is only permitted by persons who have been instructed and commissioned by the company. These operating instructions must be read carefully before first use and observed when using Dolezych products. Reference is made in particular to the following applicable regulations and technical rules:
DIN EN 13414-1 to DIN EN 13414-3 Steel wire rope slings
BGR 500 Operation of load handling attachments in hoist operation
BGI 556 Safety instruction letter for slingers
Safe slinging of loads, Resch Verlag ISBN 3-935197-34-9
If necessary, special regulations beyond this must be observed, e.g. for the transport of dangerous goods.
Wire ropes – classification according to intended use
Running ropes are driven by rope pulleys,
drive pulleys or drums.
Suspension ropes are ropes on which pulleys
of grants are ongoing.
Standing ropes do not run over
Rollers; they are used in fixed points
the link between
of a load and the hoist.
Rope diameter is not the same as rope diameter
The nominal rope diameter is not necessarily the effective rope diameter, as the nominal rope diameter is a theoretically agreed value. The effective rope diameter is the actual value measured on the rope and this is measured according to the adjacent figure.
Important: Always measure on the “mountain” of a rope; never in the “valley”!
2a. Selection of slinging ropes
Slinging ropes must be selected in such a way that their type, length and method of attachment to the load are suitable for safely taking up the load without unintentional movement.
Incorrect selection of load capacity and / or type of sling can cause the sling to break!
Stop ropes are not suitable for sharp-edged loads (only with additional edge protectors) or loads with temperatures outside – 60°C to +100°C (exceptions see use of stop ropes in different temperature ranges).
Slinging ropes must never be loaded beyond their load capacity!
The minimum breaking load (MBK) is defined by standards and manufacturers. It is the same for bare and galvanized ropes in Europe.
The real breaking force (WBC) is at least as large or even larger than the MBK.
Both forces are given in kN – Kilo Newton.
A load-carrying capacity of a rope can only be stated if it is finished on both sides, usually SF 5.
Bare or galvanized? Greased or dry?
A bare rope surface is common in running ropes and does not provide corrosion protection. Galvanizing reduces the risk of corrosion. A galvanized surface is mainly used for standing ropes.
For running ropes, a greased surface is common due to the lower friction of the sheaves. Standing ropes, on the other hand, have a rather dry rope surface.
2b. Commissioning of slinging ropes:
Before putting the selected sling into operation, check that its identification and dimensions are correct.
Never use a sling that is defective or whose marking is no longer present!
Identification of the slinging ropes
Slinging ropes (1-strand) have the following markings:
Load capacity for the ranges of the angle of inclination ß from 0° to 45° and from 45° to 60°. Indication in kg
Number of strands
Nominal rope diameter in mm
3. load transport with a slinging rope
Always follow good slinging practice: plan the slinging, lifting and lowering operation before you start lifting.
Make arrangements: Determine the weight of the load and the centre of gravity. Read the accompanying documents, look for marked attachment points and weight information on the load or weigh the load with a crane scale. Estimating weight and center of gravity using weight tables is not a suitable solution. Only when the centre of gravity has been correctly determined can the crane hook be brought into the correct position!
Inform the crane operator of the weight of the load.
Place the crane hook vertically above the load’s centre of gravity.
lifting of a load
Loads can slip or fall if they are attached incorrectly. A falling load can cause serious injury and death!
The load must be attached in such a way that damage to both the load and the slinging rope is avoided. In order to lift the load without it twisting or turning over, the following conditions must be observed:
a) For single-strand sling ropes, the slinging point must be vertically above the load’s centre of gravity.
b) For 2-fall hangers, the attachment points must be located on both sides and above the load’s centre of gravity.
c) For 3- and 4-strand hangers, the attachment points must be evenly distributed in a plane around the load’s centre of gravity and should be located above the load’s centre of gravity.
It is essential to observe the angle of inclination ß (angle between the vertical and the sling): the greater the angle of inclination, the lower the load capacity. Angles of inclination exceeding 60° are not permitted!
In the case of 3- and 4-strand hangers and uneven load distribution, only the load-bearing capacity of a 2-strand hanger as a function of the greatest angle of inclination may be assumed. If different angles of inclination occur in the case of double-strand suspension systems (see illustration), only the load-bearing capacity of a single strand may be taken as a basis.
The strand hanging more vertically absorbs the greater force.
Only one strand may be assumed to be load-bearing!
Uneven load distribution is always to be expected when:
the load is inelastic (e.g.: concrete parts, castings, short beams, etc.),
the position of the centre of gravity is not known,
the load is unevenly shaped, different angles of inclination occur.
Only use suitable and sufficiently dimensioned load application points.
Never reach under lashings!
The loops of load slings must not be chosen too short, so that an opening angle of the loop of 20° is not exceeded when slinging, e.g. to the crane hook. According to the standard, the loop length of the rope must be at least 3 x pin diameter or crane hook width! Otherwise, use suitable reducing slings / adapter slings. Special note for load slings spliced endlessly (Grummets): The butt ends of the splice are marked red. This point must not be bent under load, e.g. it must never be inserted into the crane hook!
Attention: Do not strike in the hanging aisle!
The following are exempt from this rule
large loads, provided that the slipping together of the slings and a displacement of the load are excluded
long, bar-shaped loads under trusses, provided that an inclined position of the truss is forcibly prevented and the load is supported in such a way that it does not deflect excessively. An inclined position of the crosshead need not be positively prevented if the nature and surface of the load or the stop prevents the load or parts of the load from shooting out.
Small rope bend radii require load capacity reductions!
If hangers are used in such a way that not all strands are supporting, the unused strands shall be hung up in the suspension head. Accordingly, the load capacity is reduced to the strands used.
Leave the danger area.
Communicate with all parties involved in the bumping process. Warn bystanders in the transport and unloading hazard area.
Warning: Persons at risk include, for example, slingers and other persons who are in the area of the transport route!
Only signal the crane operator through one person.
When carrying out a test lifting operation, check whether (a) the load is snagged or stuck, b) the load is in balance or hangs correctly and (c) wear all strands evenly.
Lower any loads that are hanging crookedly and reattach them.
Transporting the load by the crane.
When transporting bulky parts and under wind load, guide the load with a guide rope. Stand outside the danger zone, e.g. next to instead of in front of vehicle cranes.
Set down the load as instructed by the slinger.
Secure the load against overturning and falling apart.
Remove the slings from the load.
Hang up the hook of the slings into the suspension ring.
When lifting the unused slings, make sure that they are free from the load.
4. important instructions for use and warnings
Wear gloves when working with slinging ropes (risk of injury!)
Avoid tearing or jerking
Press clamps must not be subjected to bending stresses. Splices and press clamps must not be placed on edges of the load, in the crane hook or in the bay of the lacing. Stop ropes must not be knotted.
Stop ropes must not be tensioned over sharp edges and must not be pulled over sharp edges.
A sharp edge is already present if the edge radius r is smaller than the rope diameter d: In the case of sharp-edged loads, slinging ropes must be supported by intermediate layers (e. g. B. Dolezych edge protectors).
Slinging ropes must not be shortened by looping around the load hook.
Stop ropes must not be tensioned by twisting.
Loads must not be placed on slinging ropes if this could damage the slinging ropes.
Fittings (e.g. suspension rings, load hooks) must be freely movable. Suspension links must be able to move freely on the crane hook.
Slinging ropes which are laid several times around the load must not cross each other. The windings must be adjacent to each other.
The opening angle of the rope loops must not exceed 20° (corresponds to the standard requirement that the width of the crane hook must not exceed 1/3 of the loop length).
5. storage of the slinging ropes
It is advisable to store slinging ropes suspended from racks.
Use of slinging ropes in connection with chemicals
Slinging ropes must not be exposed to chemical influences.
Use of slinging ropes in different temperature ranges
The permissible operating temperatures for slinging ropes depend on the rope end connection and the type of rope core. The table shows the remaining load capacities:
Rope end connection
Temperature range °C
Load capacity %
Aluminium press clamp
-40 to +100
-40 to +150
-40 to +100
+150 to +200
+200 to +300
+300 to +400
-40 to +100
+150 to +200
+200 to +300
+300 to +400
6. regular audits
In accordance with the Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health, slinging ropes must be inspected by a competent person (expert) within inspection periods that have been determined by a risk assessment carried out by the respective employer and after extraordinary events that may have damaging effects on the safety of slinging ropes. The results of the test shall be recorded (DoQM test documentation software available from Dolezych). Depending on the conditions of use of the slinging ropes, inspections may be required in a short period of time, i.e. far less than after 1 year. This applies, for example, in the case of particularly frequent use, increased wear, corrosion or heat exposure, or if an increased risk of damage is to be expected on the basis of operating experience.
During the period of use, the user must carry out regular visual inspections to detect any damage. Particular attention should be paid to damage concealed by dirt, which could endanger the safe, long-term use of the slinging ropes. As soon as there is any doubt about the safe condition of a slinging rope, it must be taken out of service and inspected by an expert.
Illegible marking (information on identification and / or load-bearing capacity)
Wear of the suspension or end links by more than 15%.
Wear of the hook base by more than 5%
Hook expansion by more than 10%
elongation of the suspension or end links by more than 10% of the internal length
Visible breaks or cracks on hooks and suspension or end links
Visible deformation or bending of individual components
Damage to the rope end connections
Wear of the free rope length by more than 10% of the nominal rope diameter (d)
Fracture of a whole strand
Crushing in the contact area of the eye with more than four wire breaks in the case of stranded ropes and more than ten wire breaks in the case of cable lay ropes
More than six randomly distributed wire breaks in outer wires over a length of 3 d and not more than 14 over a length of 6 d.
The figures given in the table are considered to be the extreme limits. Discarding the slinging ropes when the number of wire breaks is lower increases safety.
More than three adjacent wire breaks on outer wires of a stranded wire (concentration)
Loosening of the outer layer in the free length
notches in and bruises on the rope (in the free length) which are not minor
Kinks, flattening, cage formation, protrusion of the core or other damage which may lead to deformation of the rope structure (rope deformation) *)
Reduction of the wire rope cross-section in the area of deformation by more than 10% of the nominal rope diameter
Damage due to heat (tarnishing of the wires, loss of lubricant or pitting), acid or lye
Damage to the rope structure (knots, constriction, flattening, kink, kink)
Damaged rope end connections (wear, deformation or cracks in press clamps or pulling out the splice)
Loose (dead) rope end is pulled into the clamp
In the case of a conical crimp connection, the end of the rope is not visible in the inspection hole.
Modifications or manipulations to components
Pitting of the wires or reduction of flexibility due to corrosion
Minimum rope diameter less than 8 mm
*) Note: The definition of the permissible and discardable rope deformation is given in DIN EN 13414-2, Annex A.2.3.6. described for the competent person in an application-oriented manner. The main point to watch out for is the displacement of wires or strands from their original position in the rope. Slight bends in the rope where the wires and strands are still substantially in their original position are not considered to be serious damage.
8. general hazard warnings
When lifting loads with slings, the person under or next to the load is at risk. As the manufacturer, we must point out to you, the user, that there are residual hazards when handling slings, particularly in that the connection from the sling to the load is not sufficiently secure or that the load swings after lifting and endangers the slinger. Falling loads endanger persons and goods.
As a user, ensure that your slingers and crane operators are well trained by means of suitable training measures. Several times a year, Dolezych holds slinging seminars for all those who are responsible for slinging equipment. Dolezych also conducts seminars on your premises: Talk to us!